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Subcapsular sinus macrophages are the first layer of cells in the draining lymph node that capture and retain lymph-borne pathogens from entering the lymph node parenchyma likely via the interaction between CD169 and its ligand, α2,3-linked sialic acids, expressed on the surface of cells or microbes Subcapsular sinus (SCS) macrophages are strategically positioned at the lymph-tissue interface in the lymph node to trap and present antigen to B cells We found that LECs residing in the subcapsular sinus (SCS) have an unanticipated function in scavenging of modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and also identified a specific cortical LEC subtype implicated in rapid lymphocyte egress from LNs Subcapsular sinus macrophages (SSMs) in lymph nodes are rapidly exposed to antigens arriving in afferent lymph and have a role in their capture and display to B cells. In tissue sections SSMs exhibit long cellular processes and express high amounts of CD169

Frontiers Lymph Node Subcapsular Sinus Macrophages as

subcapsular sinus and OVA-AuNP location in tissue sections were imaged using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SCS macrophages are the main phagocytic cells that sequestered a major amount of nanovaccines in the subcapsular sinus. They contain prominent electron-dense lysosomes. LECs make up the epithelium of the subcapsular sinus Here, we classify LN macrophages into three subsets: subcapsular sinus macrophages, medullary sinus macrophages and medullary cord macrophages. We review the literature regarding the roles of these cells in innate and adaptive immune responses and requirements for their development

Subcapsular Sinus Macrophages: The Seat of Innate and

  1. The subcapsular sinus drains into trabecular sinuses and finally into medullary sinuses. The sinus space is criss-crossed by the pseudopods of macrophages, which act to trap foreign particles and filter the lymph. The medullary sinuses converge at the hilum and lymph then leaves the lymph node via the efferent lymphatic vessel towards either a more central lymph node or ultimately for drainage into a central venous subclavian blood vessel
  2. In particular, we found a significant enrichment of genes associated with innate immune responses and immune effector functions . Among gene ontology categories describing positive regulation of cellular processes, we found an enrichment for genes related to cytokine production, protein metabolism and innate immune response . These results suggest that SSMs may have an active role in responding to lymph-borne tumor antigens
  3. phages are detected in the subcapsular sinus, the medullary. sinus, and the medullary cord, and, according to animal stud-ies, their functions and phenotypes are somewhat different in
  4. Interestingly, CCL1 is expressed by the subcapsular sinus lymphatic ECs of skin-draining lymph nodes but not by capillary lymphatic vessels in the skin, and inhibiting the CCL1/CCR8 interaction leads to impaired DC migration into the lymph node parenchyma, indicating that the CCL1/CCR8 axis functions downstream of the DC entry into lymphatics by regulating entry into the subcapsular sinus of the lymph nodes

Single-cell mapping reveals new markers and functions of

Interestingly, subcapsular sinus (SCS) macrophages of regional lymph nodes have been shown to play a role in the development of the B cell response to vesicular stomatitis virus (Carrasco and Batista, 2007; Junt et al., 2007), in invariant NKT cell activation (Barral et al., 2010), and recently in antigen presentation and early activation of the acquired immune response (Martinez-Pomares and Gordon, 2012) Find out information about Subcapsular sinus. One of the tracts of diffuse lymphatic tissue between the cords and nodules, and between the septa and capsule of a lymph node. McGraw-Hill Dictionary of.. In summary, our data supports the notion that the subcapsular sinus represents an important site for the initiation of immune responses, provides evidence that macrophages in this region can promote NK cell activity, and reveals a role for collagen interactions in directing NK cells to foci of infection within the lymph node The subcapsular sinus is lined by a layer of endothelial cells. Beneath the endothelial cells are macrophages that retrieve antigen from the lymph in the subcapsular sinus. These macrophages cannot be distinguished in histological images NK cells located in the subcapsular area exhibited reduced motility and were found associated with CD169 +-positive subcapsular sinus (SCS) macrophages and collagen fibers. Moreover, depletion of SCS macrophages using clodronate liposomes abolished NK cell accumulation and activation

Subcapsular Sinus Macrophage Fragmentation and CD169+ Bleb

Interestingly, subcapsular sinus (SCS) macrophages of regional lymph nodes have been shown to play a role in the development of the B cell response to vesicular stomatitis virus (Carrasco and Batista, 2007, Junt et al., 2007), in invariant NKT cell activation (Barral et al., 2010), and recently in antigen presentation and early activation of. Whatever the method of sizing (Tables 3 and 4), ITCs corresponding to single-tumor cells were equally present in vascular structures (capsular vessels and subcapsular sinuses) and nodal tissue, whereas ITCs corresponding to cell clusters were found mainly in capsular vessels and subcapsular sinuses (72% by sizing with Method 1 and 67% by sizing with Method 2) and MICs were found in nodal tissue (71% and 75% with Methods 1 and 2, respectively). In 23 cases, an extranodal fat involvement was.

subcapsular sinus or more deeply in the paracortex of the LN [4]. LN-residing, skin-derived DC were shown to be the first cells displaying peptide-MHC class II complexes upon subcutaneous injection ofproteinantigens[11].Atalater timepoint,dermalDC were found to migrate from the injection site to the LN and promote delayed-type hypersensitivity subcapsular sinus for direct receipt of the afferent lymph from the afferent lym­ phatic vessels. Intermediary (trabecular) sinuses, parallel with the trabeculae, con­ nected that sinus with the medullary sinuses. In the majority of mammals, lymph nodes are known to have afferent and efferent lymphatic vessels. The approach o The subcapsular sinus has clinical importance as it is the most likely location where the earliest manifestations of a metastatic carcinoma in a lymph node would be found. Cortex The cortex of the lymph node is the outer portion of the node, underneath the capsule and the subcapsular sinus

Macrophages detected in the subcapsular sinus and the medul-lary sinus of LNs express CD169 (Figs 1b,2a); however, macrophages in the medullary cord of both rodent and human LNs are negative for CD169. In addition, there tends to be more macrophages in the medullary sinus than in the subcap-sular sinus in human LNs compared to rodent LNs (Fig. 1b) Then the location of blue-stained tumor cells was easily ascertained by microscopic study of the node sections. The stained cells localized in the subcap- sular sinus region in eight experiments (Figs. 5, 6); cells were found in both medulla and subcap- sular sinus in the other two experiments NO subcapsular or trabecular sinuses. The capsule+ trabeculae in the spleen are thicker than those around the lymph nodes+ contain some smooth muscle cells. The cells found in the periarterial lymphatic sheath are mainly T cells. A germinal center may not always be present Neutrophils were found to position to the subcapsular sinus as well as the medullary region of the popliteal lymph node (Figure 2 A). Occasionally, neutrophils formed cell clusters within the sinus or were able to migrate towards the lymph node parenchyma via an intermediate sinus (Figure 2 A, left). Since fMLP is known to rapidly activate. Found in hilar region between the sinuses, composed mostly of small B and T lymphocytes, plasmacytoid lymphocytes, plasmablasts and plasma cells. Sinuses: Carry lymph from afferent to efferent lymphatics Subcapsular sinus is below capsule and partially lined by endothelium Becomes medullary as it approaches the hilum and is lined by macrophage

Lymph node macrophages - PubMe

The subcapsular sinus is lined by a layer of endothelial cells. Beneath the endothelial cells are macrophages that retrieve antigen from the lymph in the subcapsular sinus. These macrophages cannot be distinguished in histological images. Lymph Node Secondary Follicle Beneath the fibrous capsule is the subcapsular sinus. The subcapsular sinus receives afferent lymphatic ducts at intervals that deposit lymphatic fluid in the space. The subcapsular sinus communicates with the cortical sinuses that travel parallel to the capsular trabeculation. They carry lymph to the medullary sinus

Subcapsular Sinus Macrophage Fragmentation and CD169+ Bleb Acquisition by Closely Associated IL-17- Committed Innate-Like Lymphocytes Elizabeth E. Gray1, Sherree Friend2, Kazuhiro Suzuki1¤, Tri Giang Phan3,4, Jason G. Cyster1* 1Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco, California, Unite Lymph spreads through the subcapsular sinus over the lobule's apex, flows down the sides of the lobule through transverse sinuses and then flows into the medullary sinuses. Lymph from all the lobules drains into a single efferent lymphatic vessel that exits the node at the hilus ( Sainte-Marie et al., 1982 ) sinus (Fig. 2a). The subcapsular sinus continues to the intermediate sinus which in turn connects with the medullary sinuses, though the intermediate sinuses are only occasionally found in the rat.

59. Cords of Billroth are found in the a. white pulp b. spleen c. lymph nodes d. tonsils e. thymus 60. A subcapsular sinus is typically present in this structure a. thymus b. synovial joint c. spleen d. liver e. lymph node 61. Diffuse (loose) type of lymphatic tissue is characteristically found a. in mesenteries b. in the axilla and groin c. in. M2 macrophages (CD3-/CD163+) in lymph nodes were distributed in the subcapsular sinus and cortical areas, in which M2 macrophages in SN were more concentrated in subcapsular sinus areas. Clearly, SN harbored significantly higher numbers of Tregs and Tfh cells than NSN, while there was no significant difference in the expression of M2. We found that NK cells accumulate in the subcapsular region of the lymph node near foci of infection, where they engage in relatively stable interactions with CD169 + cells. Infection also promotes the association of NK cells with collagen fibers near the lymph node capsule, thereby promoting accumulation of NK cells near foci of infection

lymph sinus: the channels in a lymph node crossed by a reticulum of cells and fibers and bounded by littoral cells; there are subcapsular, trabecular, and medullary sinuses. Synonym(s): lymph sinus Microscopic (histologic) description. Reactive follicular hyperplasia. Well formed epithelial formations, in or near the peripheral sinuses. Examples include salivary gland, thyroid follicles, breast tissue, respiratory type epithelium, fallopian tube lining or endometrium. Single or tubules of epithelial cells in subcapsular sinus of draining.

The subcapsular area of the lymph nodes (LN) is represented by the subcapsular sinus and the adjacent portion of the cortical zone. In 2018, experts from the Garvan Institute of Medical Research (Australia) [] found that there are structures called subcapsular proliferative foci (SPF) in the LN of mice.The discovery was made by intravital two-photon microscopy Melanoma cells have 'sticky' proteins coated with sugars on their surface. The results show that when the cells arrive in the subcapsular sinus these proteins bind to a receptor called Siglec1 located on the surface of immune cells called macrophages, which are also present. In this way, the melanoma cells anchor themselves in the lymph node Sinuses drain toward the hilum and contain mainly macrophages. The medullary cords located near the hilum of the node contain mainly plasma cells and small lymphocytes. From the hilum, the efferent lymphatic channels egress. The structure of a lymph node is diagrammed above: A - Afferent lymphatic channels. B - Subcapsular sinus. C - Follicle.

subcapsular sinus of the compartrnent. The lymph reaches rnedullary sinuses via connecting sinuses present at the rnargin of lhe compartment where gaps (g) in the peripheral cortex occur. The peripheral cortex overiies either medulla directly or the semipherical deep cortex unit (u) of the cornpartment. In the periphery of th Here, we discovered that subcapsular sinus macrophages play a barrier role to prevent nanovaccines from accessing lymph node follicles. This is illustrated by measuring the humoral immune responses after removing or functionally altering these cells in the nanovaccine transport process Lymph nodes found closer to the heart filter lymph fluid before it is returned to venous circulation through one of the two lymph ducts. Lymph Transport. Lymph circulates to the lymph node via afferent lymphatic vessels and drains into the lymph node in the subcapsular sinus Afferent vessel, subcapsular sinus, medullary sinuses, efferent vessel. Match the following area of a lymph node with its description: Afferent lymphatic vessels. Which of the following is the most abundant cell type found in the germinal center in a lymph node? B lymphocytes

We found that mouse skin and cardiac allografts and human skin grafts release cell-free donor MHC antigens via extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are captured by subcapsular sinus (SCS) macrophages. Dendritic cells are also found in close association with the T cells. The medulla contains medullary cords of cells (B cells, plasma cells and some macrophages) and between these cords is the medullary sinus lined with endothelial cells and macrophages. Sinuses. Three sinuses are present: Subcapsular/cortical Where afferent vessels drain.

Mechanistically, we found that the uptake of large molecules is a receptor-independent, fluid-phase process that takes place by dynamin-dependent vesicular transcytosis through the lymphatic endothelial cells in the subcapsular sinus of the LN Generally the sinuses show up best beneath the capsule (subcapsular sinus) in either slide 026 View Image [orientation] or slide 142 View Image [orientation] or in the medulla (medullary sinuses, see below). Make sure you have found a real sinus and not just a separation artifact Those residing between B cell follicles have been called IFRCs (MAdCAM-1 − RANKL +); these CXCL13 + IFRCs are largely found adjacent the subcapsular sinus , while CXCL13 − IFRCs, described above, penetrate deeper into the interfollicular region, where they are phenotypically similar to TBRCs [46, 47] subcapsular sinus for direct receipt of the afferent lymph from the afferent lym­ phatic vessels. Intermediary (trabecular) sinuses, parallel with the trabeculae, con­ nected that sinus with the medullary sinuses. In the majority of mammals, lymph nodes are known to have afferent and efferent lymphatic vessels. The approach o

Lymph node - Wikipedi

Subcapsular sinus. The subcapsular sinus (lymph path, lymph sinus, marginal sinus) is the space between the capsule and the cortex which allows the free movement of lymphatic fluid and so contains a sparsity of lymphocytes. It is continuous with the similar lymph sinuses that flank the trabeculae. The lymph node contains lymphoid tissue, i.e., a meshwork or fibers called reticulum with white. A lymph node sinus-on-a-chip adhesion microfluidic platform that recapitulates the hydrodynamic microenvironment of the lymph node subcapsular sinus was engineered. This device was used to interrogate the effects of lymph node remodeling on cellular adhesion in fluid flow relevant to lymphatic metastasis Circulation in the Lymph Nodes Afferent lymphatics ↓ Subcapsular sinus ↓ Trabecular sinus ↓ Medullary sinus ↓ Efferent lymphatics 18. Lymphoid Cells - Lymphocytes Lymphocytes main warriors of immune system; • Arise in red bone marrow • Have a large purple nucleus, very little cytoplasm. 19

Gene Expression Profiling of Lymph Node Sub-Capsular Sinus

The subcapsular sinus (lymph path, lymph sinus, marginal sinus) is a region within the lymph node immediately deep to the capsule that contains relatively sparse lymphocytes.It thus allows lymph to flow freely through it. [1]The lymph node contains lymphoid tissue, i.e., a meshwork or fibers called reticulum with white blood cells enmeshed in it. The regions where there are few cells within. This sinus follows the trabeculae into the node and is now called the trabecular sinus. Webslide 0029_E: Lymph node, loris, 1.5 µm, GMA, AF & TB [DigitalScope] In this thin section, examine the subcapsular and trabecular sinuses for reticular cells (large, pale staining cells) and for free macrophages (large round cells with horse shoe shaped. NK cells located in the subcapsular area exhibited reduced motility and were found associated with CD169(+)-positive subcapsular sinus (SCS) macrophages and collagen fibers. Moreover, depletion of SCS macrophages using clodronate liposomes abolished NK cell accumulation and activation The depth of the subcapsular sinus in individual LNs varied, and for each experiment was computationally determined as the peak frequency on a plot of CD11b + subcapsular macrophage's depth below the LN capsule, minus 2 µm, which agreed across experiments with visual estimates of the subcapsular sinus site. As the sinus size varied across.

To best depict the location of the spleen, we'll describe its relations. The spleen is found in the left hypochondriac region of the abdomen (left upper quadrant). More precisely, the spleen is located posterior to the stomach and anterior to the left hemidiaphragm at the level of ribs 9-10. Medial to the spleen is the left kidney; superior is the diaphragm, while inferiorly it rests. signals provided by T follicular helper cells and antigen-presenting subcapsular sinus mac-rophages. Compared with contemporaneous secondary germinal centres, SPF have distinct single-cell molecular signature, cell migration pattern and plasma cell output. Moreover, SPF are found both in human and mouse lymph nodes, suggesting that they are. Flag as Inappropriate. capsular sinus is a subject of conflicting reports. Ultrastruc-tural studies demonstrate gaps (0.1-1 m m) or pores in the floor of the subcapsular sinus by electron microscopy (23- 26). An additional study argues against the evidence of gaps in the floor of the subcapsular sinus (27). Thus, despite th The nodes are covered by a capsule of dense connective tissue, and have capsular extensions, of connective tissue, called the trabeculae, which provide support for blood vessels entering into the nodes. Lymph, containing micro-organisms, soluble antigens, antigen presenting cells, and a few B-cells, enters the lymph node via afferent lymphatic vessels which enter the subcapsular sinus

WordNet. commit a sin; violate a law of God or a moral law (同)transgress, trespass violent and excited activity; they began to fight like sin (同)hell estrangement from god (同)sinfulness, wickedness an act that is regarded by theologians as a transgression of Gods will (同)sinning; the 21st letter of the Hebrew alphabe the subcapsular (or marginal) sinus, lying immediately below the capsule. 3. small cortical sinuses (trabecular sinuses) on either side of the trabeculae. 4. connective tissue trabeculae, stained red and extending from the capsule into the cortical region. 5. the cortex, composed of lymphatic tissue with nodules (that are poorly defined in this. unclear (24). Besides subcapsular and medullary sinuses, two other types of sinuses exist, namely the transverse and cortical sinuses, which will merge into the medullary sinuses. The transverse sinuses are invaginations of the subcapsular sinus (25), and cortical sinuses are blind-ended sacs in the paracortical zone (26). However, their exact. Subcapsular and trabecular blood sinuses are present. The parenchyma is composed of irregular lymphoid cords rich in erythrocytes, macrophages, and plasma cells and is separated by blood sinuses of variable size engorged with blood. These blood sinuses drain into the trabecular sinuses and then into the subcapsular sinus capsular sinus (Fig. 1A and fig. S1F). Within 1 day, tumor cells crossed the floor of the subcapsular sinus, and during the following 3 days, they progressed along the LN stromal network toward the center of the LN (Fig. 1 and fig. S1G). A com-parison with tumor-bearing sentinel LN samples from human breast cancer patients (fig. S1H

subcapsular sinus of lymph node and B cell areas of splenic white pulp. Phenotypac characterizanon of the cells that express the ligand(s) will be presented. Several molecules that interact specifically with CR-Fc in Western blot anal- ysis, have been detected in spleen and lymph node protein lysates Herein we present the previously undescribed finding of solar elastotic material within the dermal lymphatics, and/or capsules, subcapsular sinuses, and parenchyma of lymph nodes of 9 patients. Eight of the patients were treated and/or staged for cutaneous melanoma; one had Merkel cell carcinoma 1 In vivo imaging of inflammasome activation reveals a subcapsular macrophage burst response that mobilizes innate and adaptive immunity Pervinder Sagoo1,2, Zacarias Garcia1,2, Beatrice Breart1,2, Fabrice Lemaître1,2, David Michonneau1,2, Matthew L. Albert3,4, Yves Levy5,6,7,8 and Philippe Bousso1,2,3 1 Dynamics of Immune Responses Unit, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France At still higher power, note the afferent lymphatic vessels penetrating the capsule of the node. The lymph entering the node through these vessels will subsequently flow into the subcapsular sinus and thence into the interstices of the lymphoid tissue of the node. This high power view shows the subcapsular sinus in detail

(PDF) Possible functions of CD169-positive sinus

Fc chimeric protein containing the cysteine-rich domain of the murine mannose receptor binds to macrophages from splenic marginal zone and lymph node subcapsular sinus and to germinal center We found that mouse skin and cardiac allografts and human skin grafts release cell-free donor MHC antigens via extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are captured by subcapsular sinus (SCS) macrophages in lymph nodes or analog macrophages in the spleen RETICULAR CELLS Lymph node subcapsular sinus. Rhesus monkey, Helly's fluid, H. & E., 612 x. The subcapsular sinus of a lymph node is a lymph channel beneath the capsule of the node (see Plate 165).The component elements of the sinus are seen in this figure: reticular cells and their processes, which form a meshwork

Subcapsular sinus definition of Subcapsular sinus by

Subcapsular sinus macrophages (SSMs) in lymph nodes are rapidly exposed to antigens arriving in afferent lymph and have a role in their capture and display to B cells. In tissue sections SSMs exhibit long cellular processes and express high amounts of CD169. Here, we show that many of the cells present in lymph node cell suspensions that stain for CD169 are not macrophages but lymphocytes that. Question: What cell types are found in subcapsular space? What cell types are found in germinal centers? What cell types are found in medullary sinuses? What cell types are found in medullary cords? This question hasn't been solved yet Ask an expert Ask an expert Ask an expert done loading. Show transcribed image text Expert Answer Pale sinus channels can be seen lying immediately beneath the capsule (subcapsular sinus) and surrounding the trabecula (cortical or trabecular sinuses). From these superficial sinuses, lymph then flows into the deep medullary sinuses (not pictured here). Stellate reticular cells can be seen spanning the sinuses, where lymphocytes are less dense Within the lymph node the afferent lymphatic vessel enters the capsule and empties into the subcapsular sinus, which is connected to the trabecular and medullary sinuses (28,29). It could be shown that those sinuses are lined with a continued endothelium with long and elaborate intercellular junctions supported by reticular cells ( 30 ) More rounded cells are found throughout the lymphoid area (thick arrows) particularly in the vicinity of the sinus and high endothelial venule (v). Two very large F4/80 ÷ cells with many membrane projections are seen in the subcapsular sinus (asterisks)

sponding to the subcapsular sinus of the native LN, a middle region corresponding to the reticular conduit network of the native LN, and an inner region corresponding to the cellular regions of the native LN as shown in Figure1A. In particular, the inner region is divided into two sub-regions; one hosts T cells and corresponds to the paracortex. M.R. Anglin Four paranasal sinuses. A sinus is essentially a space within the body. Three different ones are the paranasal sinuses, the lymph sinuses, and the anal sinuses, each of which has a distinct function that helps the body run smoothly.The paranasal ones help to filter pathogens, dust, and other foreign bodies out of the body, while the lymphoid ones allow lymph to pass through lymph.

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Subcapsular sinus macrophages limit dissemination of West

the capsule, locate a space or sinus, referred to as the subcapsular sinus. These sinuses are also found around the trabeculae of the cortex and medullary cords where they are called trabecular and medullary sinuses, respectively. Afferent lymphatic vessels join the capsule and lymph gains access to the subcapsular sinus, an The structure of a lymph node is actually quite complex. Lymph nodes are divided into lobules, each of which contains an outer cortex, followed by a paracortex, with the medulla (core) on the inside. Simplistically, B lymphocytes (B cells) are found in the cortex, with T lymphocytes (T cells) and dendritic cells in the paracortex Abstract. The language of radiology is rich with descriptions of imaging findings, often metaphorical, which have found common usage in the day-to-day practice of genitourinary radiology. These classic signs give us confidence in our diagnosis. Some of the signs have become so familiar to us that they are referred to as an Aunt Minnie. We found that after infection, NK cells accumulated in the subcapsular region of the lymph node, where they formed low-motility contacts with collagen fibers and CD169+ macrophages. We provide evidence that interactions with collagen regulate NK cell migration, whereas CD169+ macrophages increase the activation state of NK cells

Subcapsular sinus Article about Subcapsular sinus by The

H&E stain. Low magnification. (Courtesy of PA Abrahamsohn.) Section of a portion of the outer cortex of a lymph node showing the capsule, subcapsular sinuses, diffuse lymphoid tissue, and lymphatic nodules. H&E stain. Medium magnification. (Courtesy of PA Abrahamsohn.) 22 Figure 1. Lymph node lymphatic sinus growth in E-µ-c-myc mice. a). Schematic of lymph node gross anatomy, illustrating the location of the cortex that contains thin subcapsular and cortical lymphatic sinuses and B lymphocytes, the paracortex containing conduits and T lymphocytes, and the medulla containing medullary lymphatic sinuse

Lymph enters the lymph node via the subcapsular sinus, which is occupied by dendritic cells, macrophages, and reticular fibers. Within the cortex of the lymph node are lymphoid follicles, which consist of germinal centers of rapidly dividing B cells surrounded by a layer of T cells and other accessory cells

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The anatomical structure of a lymph node mainly consists of two main regions: outer cortex and inner medulla. The cortex consists of a capsule, which surrounds the medulla, except in the regions of hilum. The branches of the capsule enter into the subcapsular sinus. From the superficial region, afferent lymphatic channels perforate the capsule In my studies, using a C57BL/6 syngeneic E0771 breast cancer cell line, tumor-derived antigens were detected in the germinal center with CD169+ subcapsular sinus macrophage in the tumor-draining lymph node. The importance of B-cells was demonstrated by using B-cell deficient mice, which significantly suppressed tumor growth compared to wild. In addition to lining the subcapsular sinus, LECs also infiltrate into the cortical and medullary sinuses (Figure 1) to presumably direct antigen and leukocytes into the T cell zone. Although T cells generally enter LNs via HEVs ( 19 , 57 ), afferent lymph-derived T cells may also enter the parenchyma via medullary sinuses ( 58 ) floor of the subcapsular sinus.29 The entry of leukocytes and antigen-presenting cells into lymphatic vessels and their emigration from the LN subcap-sular sinus into the parenchyma is actively regulated by LECs through the expression of several chemokines and adhesion molecules.27,30 Perhaps the best studied of these are the lym